Friday, September 20, 2019

Creatine Monohydrate And Its Effects On Sprinters Physical Education Essay

Creatine Monohydrate And Its Effects On Sprinters Physical Education Essay Creatine monohydrate has been shown to act as a buffer to maintain fast rates of ATP turnover, therefore Creatine availability has been reported to be a main limiting factor during bouts of high-intensity exercise such as sprinting. As a result of recent investigations documenting the ergogenic value of creatine monohydrate supplementation, it has been used as a popular ergogenic aid for many athletes who require fast rates of recovery (Mujika Padilla, 1997). Creatine is thought to improve performance by facilitating the rate of post-exercise Phosphocreatine (PCr) resynthesis. Given this relationship between PCr resynthesis and recovery of power output, supplementation is most likely to be beneficial to repetitive sprint activities (Glaister, 2006). However, some investigations on the effects of creatine supplementation and its effect on multiple sprint performance report significant improvements, whereas others report no such effect (Mujika, 1996). The main reasons for discrepancie s in the results of different investigations are the use of low subject numbers, varied creatine doses, varied test durations, and poor randomization. For these reasons this study will use a high number of subjects in a double blind fashion, with a dosage of 20 grams per day for the first 5 days followed by 5 grams a day for the remainder of the study. The study will continue for a duration of 8 weeks. Creatine monohydrate supplementation is popular in athletes participating in strength and power sports. Creatine use is thought to be effective for enhancing performance of activities that involve repeated intervals of sprint type exercises with short rest periods. First, an increase in PCr stores should increase the contribution of PCr for the resynthesis and decrease the demand from glycolysis which will result in a smaller accumulation of lactic acid. Then, when PCr is broken down to rephosphorylate ADP, a hydrogen ion is consumed in the reaction. Therefore, an increase in PCr could delay the onset of acidosis and fatigue and thus improve performance in repeated bouts of sprinting (Chilibeck Cornish, 2006). A study performed on the sprint performance of 19 highly trained male soccer players using creatine supplementation, consisted of six maximal 15 meter runs with a 30 second recovery period. The results of the study allowed the investigators to conclude that acute Cr supplementation favorably affected repeated sprint performance, however intermittent endurance performance was not affect by Cr (Mujika Padilla, 1998). Another study done by Mujika in 1996, involved sprint performance among twenty highly trained swimmers. Unlike the other studies mentioned, this study showed no significant improvements in sprint performance among competitive swimmers, therefore according to these results creatine supplementation cannot be considered as an ergogenic aid (Mujika, 1996). A study using the 30 second maximal cycle test, also known as the Wingate test, in conjunction with creatine supplementation also showed no ergogenic benefit. 20 grams of creatine supplementation for 3 days did not increase resting muscle PCr, nor did it affect the single short term maximal cycling performance. A possible explanation for this is that the duration of the test was too short to produce and significant muscular changes (Odland et al., 1997). Most studies have investigated the effects of creatine supplementation using cycle ergometry, this study will involve actual sprinters performing repeated sprints with relatively short rest periods performing to exhaustion. Also, there is little to no research on the prolonged effects of creatine supplementation, so the length of the study will be 8 weeks. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: While many studies exist pertaining the effects of creatine supplementation on strength, power, and endurance, few studies exist investigating the effects of creatine supplementation on sprint performance on trained sprinters. The results of prior studies have noted many discrepancies such as research done by Mujika (1996) and Glaister (2006). Not enough evidence exists on the effects of creatine supplementation on sprint performance specifically the effect it has on trained individuals. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on sprint performance in 50 NCAA colligate track and field athletes. These participants will go through an eight week supplementation and training period where they will be timed pre and post supplementation on a weekly basis in the 100 and 200 meter runs. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY: Most research on creatine has focused on short-term creatine loading and its effect on high intensity performance capacity. Some studies have investigated the effect of prolonged creatine use during strength training. However, studies on the effects of prolonged creatine supplementation on sprint performance are lacking. Due to this lack of information, this study will provide more data on the effects of prolonged creatine supplementation and its effects on sprint performance. RESEARCH HYPOTHESES: There will be a significant difference between the group which supplements with creatine and the control group in term of improvements in sprint performance. Improvements will be considered to be an improvement in time trials. The creatine group will have significant improvements in sprint performance compared to the control group. There will be more of a significant improvement in the 200 meter sprint times as opposed to the 100 meter sprint times. N) There will be no significant differences in terms of sprint performance between the creatine group and the control group. DEFINITION OF TERMS: Performance Improvement- Performance improvement for sprints will be when one records a better time than a previous test Fatigue- temporary loss of strength and energy resulting from hard physical work Exhaustion- extreme fatigue; debilitation: serious weakening and loss of energy ASSUMPTIONS: It is assumed that all subjects in the study will not be doing any other training regimen aside from the one included within the study. It is assumed that all subjects in the study are not using any other supplements during the course of the study. It is assumed that the all subjects are following protocol of the study and not deviating in any way. It is assumed that the subjects are training and performing to their maximal efforts. DELIMITATIONS: The study has been delimited to collegiate track and field athletes. The study has been delimited to athletes who compete in the 100 and 200 meter events. LIMITATIONS: Subjects are not following protocol correctly. Subjects are not performing to maximal efforts. Subjects are taking other supplements during the course of the study. Subjects change their dietary patterns mid way through the course of the study. REVIEW OF LITERATURE Most studies investigating the ergogenic value of creatine supplementation have reported significant increases in strength, power, sprint performance, and accumulation of performed work during multiple sets of maximal effort. These improvements are generally attributed to increase total creatine and phosphocreatine content in working muscles leading to more efficient resynthesis of PCr and enhance quality of training adaptations. Recent investigations by Mujika and Padilla (2000) have focused on the possible ergogenic value of supplementing the athletesà ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¢ diet with approximately 20 g/d of creatine monohydrate for a week. It has often been shown that this type of creatine supplementation can result in increased total muscle creatine and phosphocreatine concentrations. Some studies have also shown that this elevated intramuscular phosphocreatine can enhance the rate of ATP and phosphocreatine resynthesis after high intensity efforts, causing a delayed onset of muscular fatigue and an increased performance during repeated bouts of high intensity exercise. A study stimulated by anecdotal reports of gains in strength and lean body mass in conjunction with Cr supplementation investigated the use of lower doses of creatine monohydrate for extended periods during heavy resistance training. Using 16 collegiate football player which were randomly separated into creatine and placebo groups. Cr groups ingested 5 grams of creatine monohydrate while the placebo ingested a placebo capsule, both of which took their capsules for a 10 week period. The results confirmed that 10 weeks of creatine monohydrate supplementing while participating in resistance training program will significantly increase strength and power compared with placebo supplementation. The result also indicates that Cr supplementation over the long term can be effect without a large dose loading phase (Pearson, 1999). Francaux and Poortmans (1999) used 25 healthy males participating in a 42 day training period followed by a 21 day detraining period. Creatine and placebo were given over a period of 9 weeks. Subjects ingested 21 grams of Cr for 5 days followed by 3 grams per day for 58 days. There were no changes observed in body mass for the control or placebo groups, while the Cr groups had in average increase in body weight by 2 kg. The increase was partially attributed to body water content, however the relative volumes of body water compartments remained constant, thus the gain in body mass cannot be attributed to water retention, but most likely to dry matter growth accompanied with a normal water volume. It has also been reported that Cr supplementation may improve single effort and repetitive sprint performance, particularly those last from 6- 30 seconds with a 5 min rest for recovery between sprints. A study performed by Dawson et al. found that Cr supplementation significantly increased work performed during the first six 6 second cycle ergometry. These result are supported by a similar study by Schneider who reported at supplementation with Cr was associated with significant improvement in cycle ergometer sprints with 60 second recovery time. In a study concerning Cr supplementation in professional rugby players, they were directed to take a loading phase consisting of 20 grams per day for 4 days once a month. This loading phase was then followed by a 3 week abstinence period. After the third loading cycle, the players were surveyed on compliance, preferred time and ingestion method, perceived side effects and perceived benefits. The results of this survey included; 35.3% reporting being fatigued less quickly, 29.4% reported quicker recovery from sprint type activities, and 23.5% reported faster recovery from training sessions. The study concluded that Cr supplementation may be useful in sports which require repeated sprint efforts and can be advantageous in both training and performance (Meir, 1995). It has been suggested by Mujika et al. (2000) that highly trained athletes who participate in sports in which performance relies on repeated efforts could benefit from creatine ingestion by means of an increased ability to perform intermittent high-intensity exercise either during training or competition. There have also been recent reports claiming that most studies not only do not use highly trained athletes as subjects, most of the studies cited above were conducted under laboratory conditions, and none of them assessed the effects of the creatine supplementation on performance during single specific athletic events. Recently reported results suggest that highly trained subjects performing sport-specific activities do not benefit from creatine ingestion (Mujika, 1996). There have also been a number of studies which report no ergogenic benefit from Cr supplementation. For example, one study by Burke et al. (1996) used male and female swimmers from the Australian National Team who supplemented with Cr for a 5 day period using 20 grams each day. This study did not show any enhancement due to Cr supplementation in 25m,50m, or 100m swims with a 10 min recovery period. Given such a long recovery period, ATP recovery should be recovered with our without Cr supplementation, therefore an increase in performance is not expected. A similar study involving swimmers was conducted by Mujika in 1996. This study also reported no performance increases between Cr and placebo groups, but did report a gain in body weight among the Cr group. This increase in weight could result in a increase in drag force and could alter the efficiency of a swimmers stroke. A study pertaining to maximal sprint performance on a cycle ergometer after Cr supplementation was conducted by Snow et al. (1998) The subjects were untrained men, who ingested 30 grams of creatine for a 5 day period. The results indicated that this dose of supplementation increase total creatine levels but did not improve sprint exercise performance on the cycle ergometer. These results are supported by similar studies by Finn et al. (2001) and Odland (1997). A recent study done in 2003, by Delecluse et al. examined the impact of a 7 day, high dosage of Cr supplementation on single and intermittent sprint performance in highly trained sprinters. Each subject ingested 0.35g of Cr per kg of body weight. Maximal sprint performance, degree of fatigue at the end of exercise, and degree of recovery all showed no difference compared to a placebo group. A review of previous studies concerning the topic of Cr supplementation show that Cr has been show to be a powerful aid in increasing strength and power related to sprint performance. Other studies however, have shown no improvements in strength, power, or overall sprint performance in conjunction with Cr supplementation. These discrepancies in results can possibly be attributed to differences in length of supplementation, exercise criterion, dosages, or subject response. METHODOLOGY: SUBJECTS: An email was sent to ten different division one schools asking their coaches if their track team would be willing to participate in an off-season supplementation program within a study that is being conducted at the University of Scranton. Due to the lack of a track and field team, we had to contact other schools in the area and see if there track team would participate. The coach from Lehigh University responded allowing his team to participate in this supplementation program. A written consent was obtained from the all 50 participants after they were thoroughly informed of the purpose and potential risks of participating in the study. All experimental procedures were approved by the Exercise Science Committee of the University of Scranton. All subjects were members of the same team and were competing at a national level at the time of the study. TESTING PROCEDURES: All of our testing will take place at the University of Scrantonà ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¢s gym facilities. This study will use a pretest-posttest randomized-groups design. Our subjects will be evenly divided into two groups. One will be the control group, and the other the experimental group. Both the researchers and subjects will lack information as to which group is which. Each group will come in for a pre-training assessment evaluation that will last the first week of the study. Each participant will be timed in the 100 and 200 meter runs to establish prior times and speeds before supplementation begins. All of the timed trials will be supervised by experienced exercise physiologists found in our team here at the University of Scranton. During weeks two through seven is when supplementation will occur. Creatine (Cr) monohydrate will be administered to the supplementation group. This supplementation group will ingest four 5-g doses of Cr monohydrate per day for 6 days. The control or placebo group will take the same dosage of a carbohydrate solution as the supplementation group. Weekà ¢Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ ¢Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¢s three to seven will cut back to just one 5-g dose a day for 6 days. By week eight, all supplementation will end. The subjects will be given a three day period of no supplementation and will be timed once again in the 100 and 200 meter runs to see if any significant difference occurred in pre-test times. During the two to seven week period, all subjects will come in three times a week (Monday, Wednesday, and Friday) and complete the following training regiment, once in the morning and once in the afternoon. All subjects will be expected to continue all off-season training that will be administered by their coaches. Repeated sprint test (RST). A study conducted by Mujika et. all in 2000 led to believe that the repeated sprint tests were a practical training regimen that could be used within this study. Subjects will perform six maximal 15-m sprints that will have 30 seconds of recovery between each. Each sprint will begin on the blocks, and once the sprint has commenced, subjects will pass through a photocell gate (Newtest OY, Oulu, Finland) placed 0.4 m above the ground, which will start a digital timer. Additional photocell gates will be placed at 5 m and 15 m, which record elapsed and final times. Intermittent endurance test (IET). This testing procedure was also done by Mujika et. all in 2000 that was also appropriate for the training regimen in this study. This test lasts 16.5 minutes, during which subjects will alternate between forty 15 seconds bouts of high-intensity exercise and thirty-nine 10 second low intensity exercise bouts. During the high-intensity periods, subjects will follow and outlined circuit around Fitzpatrick field, running 40 m forward, and 8.25 m backwards, 95.25 m forward, 8.25 m sideways while facing away from the center of the circuit, and 8.25 m sideways while facing the center of the circuit. During the low-intensity periods, subjects will jog to the center of the circuit and back to the position they reached during previous high-intensity period. The test results in the distance covered during 40 periods of high-intensity running. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Values will be expressed as mean +/- standard deviation. The level of statistical significance will be defined as P

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Higgenbotham Book Review :: American History, American Identity

Don Higginbotham expertly combines both primary and secondary sources providing the reader a composite historical narrative of the American Revolution as â€Å"seen through American ideas.† Higginbotham was Dowd Professor at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill until his death in June 2008. Higginbotham contributed several articles on comparative revolution and many other books and articles about the American Revolution. The book’s subtitle is Military Attitudes, Policies, and Practice 1763 – 1789. However, Higginbotham devotes substantial attention to other themes providing the reader with a synthesized version of the political and military aspects of the war. He also addresses the cultural and social aspects of the war. In doing so, he illustrates how the war affected the development of an American identity and how whig philosophy translated into everyday reality for the common man. Finally, he uses the book to compare the Vietnam conflict to the American Revolution. The author never directly discusses the development of an American identity, but one can see that thread as he discusses the militia system and its reinforcement of the provincialism and localism during the period (7). Higginbotham continues this theme, contending that a group of â€Å"American political leaders† emerged within the Continental Congress who were nationalists and desired to go beyond the simple provincial assemblies (81). Higginbotham maintains this concept, proposing that Manifest Destiny may have been an issue as early as 1776 in the colonial discussions concerning the invasion of Canada (108). The concept of an American identity came to fruition in 1776 when opinion concerning independence grew increasingly favorable (117). One could argue, however, that most Americans possessed little concept of an identity even after the Declaration was signed. Nevertheless, in 1781 the Pennsylvania line must had some concept of an American identity. After revolting due to lack of pay and other necessary items, one soldier remarked that, â€Å"Clinton might ‘bribe such a mean toadeater as Arnold,’ but ‘it is not in his power to bribe an American soldier’† (404). Without an innate knowledge of what an American soldier was, it seems unlikely that such a remark would have been made. Higginbotham clearly demonstrates how colonial Americans internalized whig beliefs and turned them into action not only resisting British authority, but also resisting its own Continental Army. This created somewhat of a quandary for colonial authorities throughout the war, for in resisting the militarism of George III (118), they needed to establish a military that became what they were fighting against. Higginbotham describes Congress’ first attempt at this in a â€Å"restrained military code† that would reflect the society from which it originated.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Two Empires In Japan :: English Literature Essays

Two Empires In Japan Two Empires In Japan by John M.L. Young and The Christian Confrontation with Shinto Nationalism by Kun Sam Lee were the two books I used for this topic. The former, an intimate 100 year chronicle of the persecution by the Asian government with their demands that all people bow in Kyujo-yohai, ( worshipping the Imperial House from afar); and the struggle of the Japanese Christians in times of compromise and triumph under such totalitarian pressure. The latter a more detailed historical account of old Shinto and the earliest Christian missionaries. The following essay will focus on the conflicting ideologies within Japan between the Shinto militarists and the Protestant mission effort from it ¹s germination in 1859 until 1957. Dr. Young cites the entrance of Christianity into Japan at 1542 when a ferocious storm found two Portuguese sailors shipwrecked on the southern island of Tanegashima. The Japanese accepted the Romish syncretism of the gospel, but were more interested in the goods and technology that came with later Roman Catholic missionaries who arrived in 1549. The priests ¹ attempts at proselytization were not very difficult; the spirit in which their efforts were received is aptly demonstrated :  ³The images of Buddha, with slight application of the chisel, served as images for Christ. Each Buddhist saint found his counterpart in Roman Christianity; and the road- side shrines of Kannon, the Goddess of Mercy, were rededi- cated to Mary. Temples, altars, bells, holy water vessels, censers, and rosaries were all ready and could be easily adapted to the needs of the new religion. ( Young, pp. 12 ) Oda Noyabunga welcomed the Roman missionaries, for he needed their advanced weaponry to successfully defeat the Ashikaga Shogunate. Shortly after his victory, Noyabunga was assassinated and all priests were driven out of Japan in 1587 vis a vie a decree from Hideyoshi the Great. Sadly, Japan went more than 400 years without the influence of true religion in the entire land. Until the arrival of two Presbyterian missionaries, Dr. and Mrs. J.C. Hepburn in 1859. As the new missionaries became established they began starting mission schools for the children in which could become trained in the way of the gospel. However, after the Meiji Restoration of 1868 ( which consisted of the demotion of 270 Daimyo and over 2 million samurai giving up thier sword and status ), the indigenous religion of Japan, Shintoism, took a revitalized grip on the masses.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Max webber

This is a study of the bureaucratic characteristics of Turkish elementary and secondary schools Little is known about the organization and foundation of these schools. This study Is d beginning In an effort to develop d body of literature In these schools. Max Weber's (in Gerth ; Mills, 1946) thinking and Hall's (1961) operationalization of bureaucracy form the theoretical foundation for the study.Because the construct of alienation is the main construct that has been studied with relation to bureaucracy, this study also examines the relationships between ureaucracy and sense of power as a measure of alienation. Context Organizations surround us. Bureaucracy Is d blueprint for organlzlng human activities for a desired end. It is a sociological phenomenon that has evolved throughout the history ot clvlllzauon. As a sociological tool It has been used to bulld pyramids, to invade nations, to cure illnesses, to keep criminals incarcerated, to land on Mars, to massacre millions, to educat e. nd so on. It Is the tool of power, an â€Å"effective† device to control and direct human effort and behavior. The bureaucratic theory of Max Weber has been a point of departure for the development and odification of organization structure to Influence the flow of Interrelationships within organizations (Hall, 1963). The degree of bureaucracy in an organization sets the boundaries tor human action. These boundaries that regulate people's treedom have a by-product known as alienation.The construct of alienation has been studied with relation to bureaucracy. It has been demonstrated that people who work in bureaucracies have a limited â€Å"say† In what they do. For good or for evil, bureaucracy is the machinery to control human behavior. What matters is how to use this device without alienating people. chools are one of the forms of bureaucracy where a large portion of our lives is spent Schools prepare youth for bureaucracies. If the schools are the places that prep are people tor bureaucratized lite. hen, the teachers in them are the agents of bureaucracies. If teachers are alienated, society may also be alienated It is possible that certain problems ascribed to bureaucracies can be related to d certain degree of bureaucracy In organizations. All organizations are bureaucratic toa degree. Human lite, even before It begins and after It ends, is in contact with bureaucratic organizations. Organizations will ontinue to dominate and alienate our lives It is worthwhile to understand what bureaucracy Is and what problems are associated with It. ureducracles surround The orlgln ot the Bureaucratic Theory Since translations of Max Weber's works into the English language during the second part of the 1940s, a vast literature on organizations, In general, and on bureaucracy, 1 Of6 In partlcular, nas Deen generated. Max weDer (Ge in favor of bureaucratic organization: argued as Tollows The decisive reason for the advantage of bureaucratic organization ha s always been its purely technical superiority over any form of organization. The fully developed bureaucratic mechanism compares with other organizations exactly as does the machine with the non-mechanical modes of production.Precision, speed, unambiguity, knowledge of files, continuity, discretion, unity, strict subordination, reduction of friction, and of material and personal costs– these are raised to the optimum point in the strictly bureaucratic administration, and especially in its monocratic form. As compared with the collegiate, honorific, and avocation forms of administration, trained bureaucracy is superior on all these points. (p. 214) Max Weber (Etzioni, 1961) listed organizational attributes that when present, constitute the bureaucratic form of organization. 1 A continuous organization of official functions bound by rules. A specific sphere of competence. 3 The organization of offices follows the principal of hierarchy; that is, each lower office is under the control and supervision of a higher one. 4 The rules which regulate the conduct of an office may be technical rules or norms. 5 It is a matter of principle that members of the administrative staff should be completely separated from ownership of the means of production or administration. In order to enhance the organizational freedom, the resources of the organization have to be free of any outside control and the positions cannot be monopolized by any incumbent. 7 Administrative acts, decisions, and any rules are formulated and recorded in writing. (pp. 53-54) Based on the theory developed by Max Weber, researchers used bureaucratic theory as an analytical tool to examine organizational structure. Until the 1960s, case studies were used to assess bureaucratic characteristics of organizations. These studies were called unidimensional approach to the study of organization. Researchers who used the unidimensional approach believed that all characteristics of bureaucracy must be presen t to a high degree in an organization before it can be called a bureaucracy.During the late 1950s this approach was questioned. Researchers started to think that all characteristics of bureaucracy might not be present in an organization at the same time. Some characteristics can be stronger than others. Characteristics could be independent of each other. Bureaucratic characteristics or dimensions could create different configurations of bureaucracies. Since the 1960s, imensional approaches to study bureaucracy have been used. Hall (1961) was among the first to measure bureaucratic dimensions in organizations empirically.Hall (1961) was the first to develop a survey instrument to measure the degree of bureaucratization in organizations. After an extensive literature review, he identified six dimensions of bureaucracy: hierarchy of authority, division of labor, rules and regulations, procedural speclTlcatlons, Impersonallty, ana tecnnlcal competence. HIS instrument (Organizational Inv entory) has 62 items. All dimensions have 10 items xcept for hierarchy of authority, which has 12 items. Modified versions of his instrument have been used in educational settings to assess school bureaucratization.Researchers have added more items to his instrument during modifications. Hall's instrument was first modified by the Canadian researcher, MacKay (1964), to measure six dimensions of bureaucracy in educational settings. In Canada, Robinson (1966), Kolesar (1967) and Punch (1967) continued to use and refine the Mackay's instrument. These Canadian researchers were followed by Anderson (1970), Isherwood ( 1971), and Sousa (1980) in the U. S. Researchers using modified versions of Hall's instrument have consistently found six dimensions of bureaucracy clustered around two overall higher-order dimensions.Hall (1961) warned that one of the six dimensions could be an abureaucratic dimension. He found that the technical 4 competence dimension was inversely correlated with three d imensions. Mackay (1964) and Robinson (1966) also found that the dimensions did not converge under a single overall dimension. Punch (1967) found that six dimensions formed two higher order dimensions. Hierarchy of authority, rules and regulations, procedural pecifications, and impersonality clustered together while division of labor and technical competence clustered together.The higher order dimension formed by the first set of dimensions is a measure of bureaucratization while the higher order dimension formed by the second set of dimensions is a partial measure of professionalism. Isherwood and Hoy (1973) confirmed that Hall's six dimensions cluster under two separate second order dimensions. Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore the utility of Hall's conceptualization of bureaucracy in analyzing the organizational structure of Turkish elementary and econdary schools. Research on educational organizations in Turkey is not as advanced as it is in the western countries.T urkey adopted its centralized ministry system from European nations. No empirical studies were found on structural characteristics of Turkish public schools. Researchers do not have an empirical base to help them understand how organizations function. It is hoped that this study will start a literature base on the subject and provide a tool to assess the organizational structure of schools that is desperately needed in Turkey. Also an empirical llustration from Turkey might provide a useful addition to the literature because the literature on school organizations in developing countries is very limited.Researchers know little about how school bureaucracy functions in other cultures. Questions How are the bureaucratic dimensions of Turkish elementary and secondary schools related? What are the relationships between the bureaucratic dimensions of Turkish elementary schools and the demographic variables? wnat are tne relatlonsnlps Detween tne Dureaucratlc Olmenslons 0T lur s elementary and secondary schools and teachers' sense of power? 5 Definitions Major Variables A bureaucracy is an organizational form designed to accomplish large-scale administrative tasks by systematically coordinating the work of many individuals (Blau, 1956).Hierarchy of authority (HA) is â€Å"the extent to which the locus of decision making is prestructured by the organization†(Hall, 1968, p. 95). Division of labor or specialization (DL) is â€Å"the extent to which work tasks are subdivided by functional specialization within the organization† (Hall, 1968, p. 95). Rule enforcement or rules and regulations (RR) is â€Å"the degree to which the behaviors of organizational members re subject to organizational control† (Hall, 1968; p. 95).Procedural specification (PS) is â€Å"the extent to which organizational members must follow organizationally defined techniques in dealing with situations they encounter† (Hall, 1968, p. 95). Impersonality (IM) is â€Å"the e xtent to which both organizational members and outsiders are treated without regard to individual qualities†(Hall, 1968, p. 95). This dimension has two distinct factors. (1) Friendly climate (CLM) is the degree to which relations in the organization are friendly and warm. (2) Formality (FRM) is the degree to which nteractions among people are formal and free from emotions.The second factor was accepted as the measure of impersonality. The friendliness of the school climate is most likely to be an outcome variable rather than a structural variable. This variable was analyzed separately. Promotions based on technical competence (TC) is â€Å"the extent to which organizationally defined â€Å"universalistic† standards are utilized in the personnel selection and advancement (Hall, 1968, p. 95). Control is the degree to which bureaucratic authority is utilized to regulate teacher behaviors.Expertise is the degree to which professional authority is utilized to regulate teach er Sense of power (SP) is the extent to which a teacher believes he/she is able to influence the course of events in the school that holds significance for him/her (Moeller 1962). 6 Teacher's friendship with school administrators was measured by responses to the statement, † I have a friendship with school administrators outside the school,† on a five-point Likert type scale ranging from 1 = definitely inaccurate to 5 = definitely accurate . Demographic Variables Name of city is the school district where the teacher works.It is operationalized as the name of the township: Karabuk (1), Safranbolu (2), Eflani (3), Eskipazar (4), Yenice (5), and Ovacik (6). Number of sessions is a two-category variable. Teachers were grouped into two categories ( ) teacners wno work at scnools tnat run one sesslon a cay ana teachers who work at schools that run two sessions a day. Level of the school refers to grades in the teacher's school. Teachers in elementary school (K-5) were coded as one, teachers in middle schools (6-8) were coded as two, and teachers in high schools (9-11) were coded as three.Size variables are (1) the number of teachers who are on the payroll of the teacher's school, (2) number of students enrolled in the teacher's school, (3) student-teacher ratio in the teacher's school, (4) number of classrooms in the teacher's school, and (5) number of administrators in the teacher's school. Age of the teacher's school is the number of years passed since the foundation of the school. Urbanization is a three-level categorical variable: teachers who work in urban schools, teachers who work in suburban schools, and teachers who work in rural schools. Urban was coded as one, suburban was coded as two, and rural was coded s three.Occupation of principal's father was a five-level categorical variable: teachers who work under principals whose fathers were farmers (coded 1), teachers who work under principals whose fathers were blue collar workers (coded 2), tea chers who work under principals whose fathers were small business owners (coded 3), teachers who work under principals whose fathers were civil servants (coded 4), and teachers who work under principals whose fathers were professionals (code 5). 7 Sex is the gender of the teacher. Male teachers were coded as one while female teachers were coded two.Socio-economic status of teacher was measured by three variables (1) growing up location of teacher, (2) number of sisters and brothers of teacher, and (3) father's occupation of teacher. The grown-up location of teacher was operationalized as rural (1), town (2), city (3), big city (4), and all (5). Father's occupation was categorized as small business owner (1), civil servant (2), blue-collar worker (3), and farmer (4). Socio economic status of students (SES) is the teacher's principal's perception of students socioeconomic status measured on a five point likert type scale.Principals ere asked to rate students in their school on a five- point scale ranging from very poor (1) to very wealthy (5). Political ties of teachers were measured on a five-point Likert- type scale. Teachers were asked to respond to following statement: â€Å"l know influential people who can help me if I am in trouble in this school. † Response options ranged from definitely inaccurate (1) to definitely accurate (5). Experience of teacher was measured by four variables: (1) age of teacher, (2) total service years of teacher in teaching, (3) total years in administrative positions and (4) ork experience outside teaching.The last variable, the work experience outside teaching, was a categorical variable. Teachers who had work experience outside teaching were assigned one while teachers who did not have work experience outside teaching were assigned two. Overall alienation from work was utilized to cnec tne vallOl ty 0T sense 0T power scale. leacners were asKea to response to tne following question: â€Å"Do you wish your child to pursue a career in teaching? † Those who said â€Å"†yes† were assigned â€Å"two† and those who said â€Å"no† were assigned â€Å"one. † Teacher's birthplace had two possible responses. Those who were born in the province, Karabuk, were assigned a â€Å"two. Those who were born outside the province were assigned a â€Å"one. † Training had three potential responses. Teachers who were not graduated from teacher colleges were assigned a â€Å"one,† teachers who were not graduated from teacher colleges but 8 earned teaching certificate by attending extra training were assigned a â€Å"two,† and regular teachers who were graduated from teacher colleges were assigned a â€Å"three. † Experience of principals had three measures: (1) age of teacher's principal, (2) total ears in administrative positions, and (3) total service years in education sector.These measures were obtained during school visitations. Percentage of male is the percentage of male teachers in teacher's school. Organization of the Study The relevant literature is reviewed in the second chapter. The third chapter deals with instrumentation and methodology. The findings of the pilot study are reported in the fourth chapter. The findings of the research sample are in the fifth chapter. After discussions of findings, recommendations for further research are presented in the sixth chapter.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Deviance in Bowling for Columbine

This paper entitled, â€Å"Deviance in Bowling for Columbine† intends to find out the validity of the opinion expressed by the film’s author. It also aims to articulate personal opinion with regards to the issue raised in the film. Furthermore, it will also present a solution to the issue raised. Last but not least, it will state an obvious obstacle to the solution. Validity of the Opinion Expressed by the Film’s AuthorThe validity of the opinion expressed by the film’s author may not at all be questioned basically because his articulations resulted from a true-to-life story. In addition to that, he reiterates violence and deviant behaviors so as to reintroduce to this growing problem of society. To help us understand better the validity of the opinion expressed by the film’s author, let us go through some of the film’s details: The story of â€Å"Bowling for Columbine† is about the United States’ obsession of violence and guns (Bowling.. , 2002).It is a sort of a documentary wherein the story is based on the incident dated April 20, 1999 (Bowling.. , 2002). Here, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, students of the Columbine High School, attended their bowling class before they carried out a killing spree at the aforementioned school in Little, CO (Bowling.. , 2002). While Michael Moore, the star of the movie, thinks about the aforementioned alarming event, he takes into consideration the relation or association of bowling or the game of ten pins and random violence (Bowling.. , 2002).He, then now calls on the Michigan Militia to: 1) spend time with James Nichols, the brother of Terry Nichols who is one of the people responsible for the bombing of Oklahoma City; 2) visit K-Mart’s offices, where two young individuals were injured as a result of the Columbine massacre; 3) request K-Mart to discontinue selling ammunitions; 4) place under scrutiny the role of the media in the United States in relation to the fear and anger that it brings about; 5) compares United States and Canada’s statistical information on crime rate; as well as 6) question Charles Heston, the president of the National Rifle Association, with regards to his participation to the rally of pro-gun, which was held in Littleton just days after the massacre in Columbine, as well as, another protest in Flint, MI, just after a 6-year-old was killed by a classmate using an Uncle’s gun (Bowling.. , 2002). Personal Opinion on the Issues Raised in the Film Violence is highly related with deviance or deviant behaviors. Deviant behavior is technically defined as â€Å"a behavior or an act that is known to violate of defy social norms† (Wikipedia, 2007).I strongly believe that the issues raised in the film were timely and appropriate since his movie shows the advantages of deviant behavior to the society through the three major sociological theories, namely: a) Structural Functionalism, b) Conflict Theory, and c) Symbolic Interactionism. Through the killing/gun shooting shown in the movie, cultural values and norms were affirmed, moral boundaries were clarified, social unity is upheld, and social change is encouraged (Wikipedia, 2007). Because it is such a terrible occurrence, the movie is utilized to address violence, as well as, the deviant behaviors illustrated in it. More specifically, the issue raised here is with regards to how the society deal or handle guns and how it contributes largely to deviance or deviant behaviors in our society. Alternative and Probably the Most Successful Solution to the Issue RaisedI strongly believe that the most successful solution to the issue raised, at this point, is gun control. Several things may be carried out to control the consequences of gun handling and some of these are the following: 1) weight the advantages and disadvantages of owning a gun before eventually acquiring one; 2) promote â€Å"no gun† zones within the school; 3) get the local involved in school safety training; 4) take note of what the children are watching on television, tell them what programs they should watch and let them know the importance of watching only informative ones instead of violent ones that may motivate them to become one tool; 4) etc (Michigan.. , n. d. )Impediments/Obstacles to the Solution which may be Raised by Persons which have a Stake in the Outcome The only apparent obstacle to the solution which may be raised by persons which have a stake in the outcome are those who have extreme love for guns. They may protest on it since they know they will experience a little â€Å"uneasiness† since it will no longer be that easy to acquire a gun. Reference Bowling for Columbine. (2002). Retrieved May 28, 2007 from http://www. imdb. com/title/tt0310793/ Michigan Partnership to Prevent Gun Violence. (n. d. ). Retrieved May 28, 2007 from http://www. mppgv. org/what_you_can_do_content. htm Wikipedia. (2007). Deviant Behavior. Retri eved May 28, 2007 from http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Deviant_behavior

Sunday, September 15, 2019

Physical Security Essay

Securing networks or systems within institutions and corporations is not enough. At present, security is not only concerned with the ethereal aspect of it but also with the tangible dynamics of physical security. Although physical security seems too basic, establishing even the most sophisticated network security is useless if its physical environment does not keep it sheltered and protected. Security threats that have something to do with the physical aspect of institutions include burglary and theft. In this case, even the most established digital security system that functions within the computer networks will not be able to prevent these crimes. A breach in physical security makes the network or digital system of the institution susceptible to power interruptions that disrupts the security system, addition of hardware devices that may used to hack or spy into the system, removal of hardware devices that paralyzes the system, copying confidential data from the system through USBs, CDs, and such, logging in the system directly without authorization, etc. Stewart, 2004) The importance of high standard physical security systems and policies ensure that aforementioned situations that seek to jeopardize the position of institutions that might affect all its aspects, especially its finances, are avoided. Having a secure digital system is impressive, but having a secure digital system and physical environment is highly recommended. To uphold high quality standards of security, both the digital and physical aspects of security should be merged. Sturgeon (2004) defines this as marrying digital and physical security. Physical security involves the use of high-tech gadgets such as cameras that will be used for close monitoring, 24-hour video coverage and storage, video recording triggered by movements, wireless and mobile installments within the physical environment, etc. (Physical Security, 2008) The physical security approach is based on four principles or strategies. First, physical security follows the necessity of protecting the network or institution, detecting security threats and possible risks, responding to these threats and risks, and allowing recovery for the network or institution from damages or indemnities brought about by security breaches. This process requires setting up of security systems that will accomplish these four phases of protecting (with the use of controlled access systems that restricts involvement of the public to authorized personnel only), detecting (using surveillance systems and frequent check-up of the physical areas of institutions), responding (well-trained security officials and network protocols that carry out these responses to security threats and risks), and recovering. (Operational Security Standard on Physical Security, 2004) Second, physical security builds up on hierarchical zones that protect or safeguard access to the security system. These hierarchical zones include the public zone (areas accessible to the public), reception zone (area wherein the boundary between the public and restricted zones is determined), operations zone (areas private to personnel), security zone (areas private to only authorized personnel or visitors), and the high security zone (areas private to authorized and escorted personnel or visitors). Within these zones, technological facilities and security officials are installed and designated respectively to carry out four phases in the previous approach discussed. (Operational Security Standard on Physical Security, 2004) The third approach in physical security is controlling access to determined hierarchical zones. This approach has something to do with controlling access most especially to restricted areas. It does not only control individual access, but is also concerned with the entry of materials considered to be potentially threatening or risky to security, such as mobile phones and other technological gadgets, harmful objects such as knives, guns, and such, etc. Although institutions should consider this approach in physical security, controlling access should not limit or restrict authorized individuals too much, allowing them ease in visiting each zone within the institution. Aside from security officials designated at every zone, there should also be systems that carry out state-of-the-art security protocols, such as technologies installed within the institution that asks for PIN or access numbers, access cards, biometrics, etc. Fourth, physical security systems should be designed to increase security levels in times of emergency or security threats. (Operational Security Standard on Physical Security, 2004) These four approaches, as recommended by the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat follow the requirements of a strong and efficient physical security system. The concepts supported by these four approaches suggest how physical security systems and policies should be established in order to ensure that it will serve its purpose. However, accomplishing all the requirements in establishing a physical security system and a set of policies is not enough. Institutions should make sure that these elements of security are assessed and evaluated to ensure that it is properly sustained and it is up-to-date with trends in security technologies and processes. Part of the evaluation process includes frequent training and drills for security officials, checking-in with technological innovations that improve quality of security measures and systems, and observing existing systems to determine much-needed replacements or tweaks. With all these information in mind, physical security is a vital part in institutions that should not be neglected nor taken lightly. It complements digital network security systems, such that it prevents it from being jeopardized or subjected to external control, manipulation, and possible damages that affects the operations within the institution. Establishing a solid physical security system require that all aspects of the physical environment within an institution is identified. Mapping out requires that the institution determines where security is most needed and where access is most likely to be controlled. Aside from going over the basics and technical details of physical security systems, institutions should provide time and effort to evaluate the system in order to ensure that it functions efficiently according to its purpose, and that it meets the highest requirements of quality standard physical security.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Child Development, Nature vs Nurture

The nature versus nurture debate is one of the oldest issues in psychology. The debate centers on the relative contributions ofgenetic inheritance  and  environmental factors  to human development. Some philosophers such as Plato and Descartes suggested that certain things are inborn, or that they simply occur naturally regardless of environmental influences. Other well-known thinkers such as John Locke believed in what is known as  tabula rasa, which suggests that the mind begins as a blank slate. According to this notion, everything that we are and all of our knowledge is determined by our experience.For example, when a person achieves tremendous academic success, did they do so because they are genetically predisposed to be successful or is it a result of an enriched environment? Today, the majority of experts believe that behavior and development are influenced by both nature and nurture. However, the issue still rages on in many areas such as in the debate on the origins of homosexuality and influences on  intelligence. This question has puzzled philosophers, psychologists and educators for hundreds of years and is frequently referred to as the  nature versus nurture  debate.Are we the result of nature (our genetic background) or nurture (our environment)? Today, most researchers agree that child development involves a complex interaction of both nature and nurture. While some aspects of development may be strongly influenced by biology, environmental influences may also play a role. For example, the timing of when the onset of puberty occurs is largely the results of heredity, but environmental factors such as nutrition can also have an effect. From the earliest moments of life, the interaction of heredity and the environment works to shape who children are and who they will become.While the genetic instructions a child inherits from his parents may set out a road map for development, the environment can impact how these directions are expre ssed, shaped or event silenced. The complex interaction of nature and nurture does not just occur at certain moments or at certain periods of time; it is persistent and lifelong. Babies begin to take in sensory experiences from the world around them from the moment of birth, and the environment will continue to exert a powerful influence on behavior throughout life. Geneticscan have a powerful influence on development, but experiences re equally important. For example, while the genetic code contains the information on how a child's  brain  may be pre-wired, it is learning and experience that will literally shape how that child's brain grows and develops. Final ThoughtsClearly, genetics have an enormous influence on how a child develops. However, it is important to remember that genetics are just one piece of the intricate puzzle that makes up a child's life. Environmental variables, including parenting, culture, education and social relationships also play a vital role.Nature v ersus Nurture is a popular debate about whether our genetics, or environmental influences â€Å"mold† more of who we are. An example is whether you get your out-going personality because of your DNA, or because you grew up in an environment that made you out-going. Nature is your genes, Nurture is environmental influences. Read more:  http://wiki. answers. com/Q/What_is_the_argument_of_nature_vs_nurture#ixzz29QTunXP3 The nature vs nurture debate is one of the most enduring in the field of psychology. How far are human behaviors, ideas, and feelings,  INNATE  and how far are they all  LEARNED?These issues are at the center of the ongoing nature versus nurture debate or controversy. In the 17th  century the French philosopher Rene Descartes set out views which held that we all, as individual Human Beings, possess certain in-born ideas that underpin our approach to the world. The British philosophers Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, on the other hand, emphasised the role of experience as fully contributing to behavioral development. Locke set out the case that the human mind at birth is a complete, but receptive, blank slate ( scraped tablet or tabula rasa ) upon which experience imprints knowledge.Let us then suppose the mind to be, as we say, white paper void of all characters, without any ideas. How comes it to be furnished? Whence comes it by that vast store which the busy and boundless fancy of man has painted on it with an almost endless variety? Whence has it all the materials of reason and knowledge? To this I answer, in one word, from EXPERIENCE. Dandelion children tend to do pretty well no matter what environment they grow up in. Orchid children, meanwhile, may develop behavior or mood problems in abusive or neglectful homes — but in loving ones, they may thrive even more than dandelions. And according to new research, the